Skip to Main Content

Lynchings on Maryland's Lower Eastern Shore: George Armwood, 1933

Maryland State Archives biographical series

George Armwood (b. 1911 - d. 1933)
MSA SC 3520-13750
Lynched in Princess Anne, October 18, 1933


George Armwood was lynched in Princess Anne in Somerset County on October 18, 1933. He was 22 or 23 years old and a resident of Pocomoke City when he was murdered. Armwood had been accused of attempted assault and rape of 71-year-old* Mary Denston two days before, on October 16. 

George Armwood was widely considered to be a very hard worker, uncomplaining, quiet, and generally well liked.1 He was also described as "feeble-minded."2 John Waters, a 21-year-old who described himself as a friend of Armwood's, said of him that "that guy was a little off at times." Waters suggested that this "feeble-mindedness" was at the root of a separate assault, when Armwood allegedly sexually assaulted an African American woman. That case occurred years before he was accused of attacking Mary Denston, but it was not investigated, some said because of the influence of Armwood's white employer, John H. Richardson.3 Armwood attended school until the age of fifteen, when, according to his mother, "Mr. John H. Richardson, white, and his wife requested that George be given to them."The Afro-American wrote a piece referring to this arrangement after the lynching. The article suggested that Armwood should have been placed in a psychiatric ward, but was not, "in spite of his mental infirmity or because of it, he was a good workman and an inexpensive one." The case seemed to resemble the Matthew Williams lynching case of 1931, since Williams, who was "conceded by both colored and white to be demented," was "allowed to work at starvation wages until he allegedly slew his own employer and exploiter." The Afro-American asserted that a number of cognitively disabled African Americans were held in "peonage, ignorance, and serfdom" on the Eastern Shore in what was "merely a polite term for slavery."5

After the alleged attack, Richardson reportedly aided Armwood in his escape. Armwood's mother mentioned that assertion in her interview with the Afro and the rumor was repeated by John Waters, who described the Richardsons as "his [Armwood's] white people" and said that Richardson "helped George to get away from that mob which was hunting him."6 

After Mary Denston reported the attempted assault, police in Somerset County organized a search party to look for George Armwood in the woods near where the incident took place. They questioned those in the area, and armed men searched the home of Armwood's mother Etta in Manokoo. George Armwood was found hiding in the home of John H. Richardson. He was dragged across the field and beaten as he was taken into custody.  Armwood's mother saw the beating from her house. She told reporters from the Afro-American that she feared he would be killed.7  

Armwood was taken to the Salisbury prison, ten miles north of Princess Anne. After the lynching of Matthew Williams in 1931, lynch law had embarrassed Maryland authorities. The distance was not a guarantee of safety but it would put ten miles between George Armwood and potential lynchers in Princess Anne.

However, by 5 o'clock the afternoon of Armwood's jailing in Salisbury, a white mob was forming. It was decided to move George Armwood. He would be shuttled from Cecil County to as far as Baltimore City in an effort to avoid mob violence. Somerset County Judge Robert F. Duer and State Attorney John Robins were pressured by their constituency to call for Armwood's return to the Eastern Shore. The two assured Governor Albert C. Ritchie that the justice of the courts would not be circumvented by terror and lynch law. Governor Ritchie assented, and Armwood was sent back to Princess Anne in the early morning of October 17.

Despite the promises of Duer and Robins, the mob formed again at the jail once people heard of Armwood's return. Judge Duer reportedly spoke to the crowd while he was en route to a dinner party. "I know nearly all of you," he told the crowd, going on to say that he was "one of them" and would hold the citizens "to their honor." The crowd initially dispersed in response to Duer's words, but it quickly reassembled. Deputy Norman Dryden, Captain Edward McKim Johnson, and 23 other officers guarding the jailhouse threw tear gas into the mob. As the smoke cleared, the lynch mob used two fifteen-foot timbers as battering rams to breach the jailhouse doors. Captain Johnson was reportedly knocked unconscious, and Deputy Dryden was forced to hand over the keys to the cells. 

Armwood hid under his mattress but was dragged out of his cell by the mob and a noose was placed around his neck. He was beaten, stabbed, and kicked, before he was tied to the back of a truck and driven to the place he would be hanged. Initially, the mob favored a tree near Judge Duer's home, but instead they used a nearby tree on the property of 91-year-old Thomas Bock. Before he was hanged, Armwood's ears were cut off and his gold teeth were ripped out. Armwood was reportedly dead by the time the mob raised and dropped his body from a tree branch.

The lynch mob dragged George Armwood's corpse back to the courthouse on the corner of Prince and William Streets in downtown Princess Anne. His body was hanged from a telephone pole and burned. His corpse was dumped in Hayman's Lumber Yard, to be gathered by the authorities in the morning.

Governor Ritchie blamed Judge Duer and State Attorney Robins for Armwood's lynching and prompted an investigation to find those responsible. A grand jury heard testimony from 42 witnesses to the Armwood lynching, including twelve black men who were held in the jail and had heard, if not seen, Armwood dragged to his death.  As predicted, those interviewed claimed that the organizers of the lynching were not from the local community, and therefore they could not identify anyone involved that night.  Ralph Matthews, editor for the Afro- American newspaper, in an interview with Deputy Dryden, reported the name Shelburn Lester as the man who rushed and injured Capt. Johnson.  It was apparent that people of Salisbury and Princess Anne were deeply involved with the lynching, and the mob was not composed of strangers and out-of-towners, as many asserted later. Even after state police identified nine men as acting leaders of the mob, a local jury issued not one indictment for Armwood´s murder.  Attorney General Preston Lane ordered the National Guard to Salisbury and arrest suspected lynchers.  Twelve men total were named as being members of the lynch mob. Hostilities between the Salisbury locals and the National Guard broke out.  It reached the point where local chants of "Lynch Lane" prompted the State Attorney General to leave the city. The next day in Somerset County, four men were on trial for the lynching in Princess Anne on a habeas corpus hearing. One thousand white supporters cheered as the jury ordered the release of the accused, and dismissed the case forever.8 

*  Age of Mrs. Denston according to article in Afro-American, October 21, 1933, notes Mrs. Denston as seventy-one years old.  Prof. Ifill's book On the Courthouse Lawn, lists Mrs. Denston as eighty-two years old. 

1. "Armwood Quit School in 5th Grade, Says Pal," Afro-American, October 21, 1933.

2. "Mob Members Knew Prey Was Feeble-Minded," Afro-American, October 21, 1933.

3. "Armwood Quit School in 5th Grade."

4. "Mother's Heart is Broken from Lynch Tragedy," Afro-American, October 21, 1933.

5. "Get at the Roots," Afro-American, October 21, 1933.

6. "Armwood Quit School in 5th Grade."

7. "Mother's Heart is Broken from Lynch Tragedy."

8. Ifill, Sherrilyn A. On the Court-House Lawn: Confronting the Legacy of Lynching in the Twenty-first Century. Boston: Beacon Press, 2007.


Accessed from the Maryland State Archives website here and used under fair use.

Newspaper Clippings October 1933

"Officers and Posses Hunt Somerset Woods for Negro Assailant of Aged Woman," Salisbury Times, October 16, 1933.


"Somerset Jury Will be Recalled for Trial of Man on Assault Charge," Salisbury Times, October 17, 1933.

"Steps in Path of Auto, Negro Girl Fatally Injured," Salisbury Times, October 17, 1933.

"Negro Admits Shore Attack, Police Claim," Baltimore Sun, October 17, 1933.

"Police Squad Escorts Negro Back to Shore," Baltimore Sun, October 18, 1933.

"Accused Negro Leaves for Shore to Face Victim," Baltimore Sun, October 18, 1933.

"Attorney General Lane to Take Charge of Probe Into Hanging of Prisoner," Salisbury Times, October 19, 1933.

"Commander of State Police Gives Own Account of Attack on Jail," Salisbury Times, October 19, 1933.

"Ritchie's Statement of Preparation for Victim's Protection," Salisbury Times, October 19, 1933.

"Shore Mob Lynches Negro," Baltimore Sun, October 19, 1933.

"Report of Impending Mob Action Heard by Ritchie in Annapolis," Baltimore Sun, October 19, 1933.

"Governor Puts Responsibility on Duer and State's Attorney," Baltimore Sun, October 19, 1933.

"Spoke Too Hastily, Governor Discovers," Salisbury Times, October 20, 1933.

"Battered Jail Door at Princess Anne," Salisbury Times, October 20, 1933.

"Capt. Johnson Is Commended for Judgement," Salisbury Times, October 20, 1933.

"Colored School Girl Killed at Westover," Marylander and Herald, October 20, 1933.

"Mob Storms County Jail Wednesday Night; Lynches Negro Accused of Attacking White Woman Monday," Crisfield Times, October 20, 1933.

"The Lynching of Armwood," Crisfield Times, October 20, 1933


"Euel Lee to Hang Friday; State Police Evacuate Scene of Negro Lynching," Baltimore Sun, October 20, 1933.

"Governor Ignores Plea to Save Lee ; Must Die Friday," Baltimore Sun, October 20, 1933.

William Player, "Shore Judges Hold Conference Over Probe of Lynching," Baltimore Sun, October 20, 1933.

"Claim Lynch Case Rests With County," Baltimore Sun, October 20, 1933.

"Sober Men Yelled Like Beasts at Lynching, Says a Witness," Baltimore Sun, October 20, 1933.

"News Summary," Afro-American, October 21, 1933.

"Maryland Prisoner Snatched from Ready Eastern Shore Mob," Afro-American, October 21, 1933.

"No Fear of Lynching on 'Shore Says Princess Anne Head," Afro-American, October 21, 1933.

"Rush Suspect to City for Safe Keeping," Afro-American, October 21, 1933

Levi Jolley, "Armwood Quit School in 5th Grade, Says Pal," Afro-American, October 21, 1933


"Interracial Group Demands Governor Oust Robins, Duer," Baltimore Sun, October 21, 1933.

"Lynching Investigation Awaits Coroner Inquest; Lane Will Help in Probe," Baltimore Sun, October 22, 1933.

"Seek Police Knowledge of Mob Leaders," Salisbury Times, October 23, 1933.

"Witnesses Recall No Mob Leaders," Salisbury Times, October 24, 1933.

"Inquest in Lynching is Given Recess," Salisbury Times, October 25, 1933.

"Cause and Remedy," Salisbury Times, October 26, 1933.

"The Armwood Lynching," Crisfield Times, October 27, 1933.

"Investigation Begins in Lynching of Negro; Inquest Held Tuesday," Crisfield Times, October 27, 1933.

""No Evidence in Lynching Says Robins," Salisbury Times, October 28, 1933.

"Judge Orders Balto. Sheriff Shoot to Kill," Salisbury Times, October 28, 1933.

"Secretary of Church Group Flays Lynching," Salisbury Times, October 28, 1933.

"Editorial - Lets Not Make a Joke Out of It," Marylander and Herald, October 28, 1933.

John G. Alexander, "Places Blame for Lynching," Marylander and Herald, October 28, 1933.

John M. Whitmore, "Another Outsider Butts In," Marylander and Herald, October 28, 1933.

"Lynch Probe Awaits Lane's Arrival Here," Marylander and Herald, October 28, 1933.

James E. Byrd, "Ramblings of an Editor," Marylander and Herald, October 28, 1933.

"Editorial - Who Took Armwood to Baltimore?" Marylander and Herald, October 28, 1933.

"AFRO First on Lynch Scene," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"Getting at the Roots" Afro-American, October 28, 1933.


"Exclusive Afro Coverage of Armwood Lynching," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.


Clarence Mitchell, "Mob Members Knew Prey Was Feeble-Minded" Afro-American, October 28, 1933


"Ardmore Voters Want Policeman Ousted," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

Levi Jolley, "Mother's Heart is Broken from Lynch Tragedy," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"Blonde Youth Tells How Mob Acted in Princess Anne Jail," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"Baltimore Folk Expected Eastern Shore Lynching," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"Chi Delta Mu Frat Protests Lynching," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

Levi Jolley, "Child is Killed as Mob Seeks Prey to Lynch," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"ILD Demands Arrest of Judge," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"M.E. Official Flays Lynchers, Demands Action," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

Linwood G. Koger, "An Open Letter to Gov. Albert C. Ritchie," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"Mad Mobsters Pick Out Victim's Gold Teeth," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"We Are Too Satisfied, Says Rev. Mr. Boddie," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"Levinson Blames Ritchie in Lynching," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"Leslie Pinckney Hill Attacked as 'Traitorous'; NAACP Denounced; Intellectuals Hit as Backward," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"Judge Ulman Heads League Delegation," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

W. Llewellyn Wilson, "Maryland's Lynch Symphony," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"MD. Lynch Protests Mount," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"The Press on Maryland's Second Annual Lynching," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"News Summary of the Afro-American for Your Scrapbook," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"Maryland Lynchings Since 1882 Now Increased to 33," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"Glad They Lynched Him, Says Son of the Alleged Victim," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"Comment on Armwood Lynching," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"Coroner Probed Only 7 Minutes, No Decision," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"Name Woman's Relative as Mob Member," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"Mrs. Gaines to Head MD. Federation," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"Ritchie Blamed by Reds for Lynching," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"Jailer Names Hester as a Mob Member," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"We Didn't Want to Hurt Nobody, Says Corporal," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"Houston Sends Lynch Protests to Bar Association Heads and American Legion Officials," Carlton R. Smith, "Century of Progress With White Cannibals in Md." Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

Frank Spencer, "Robins and Daugherty Told Armwood Would be Lynched," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"Richardson Now in Baltimore Jail," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"Roman Holiday as Armwood Hanged, Burned," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"Lynching Flayed by Two D.C. Ministers Sunday," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

Robert T. Ford, "Impotent Cowards," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"Interracial Group Raps Governor," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"Paragraphs," and "No Time for Family Squabbles," Afro-American, October, 28, 1933.

John Louis Clark, "Desk Man Tells How AFRO Staff Editor Covered Princess Anne Lynching," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"Noose, Gibbet on Truck at Lee Protest," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"Whites and Blacks Mingle Freely After Dark in Princess Anne," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

Ralph Matthews, "Potter's Field Gets Last Remains of Mob Victim," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"D.C. Baptists Adopt Lynch Resolutions," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"Doomed to Failure," "Trash of the Earth," "Raps Ritchie," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

Walter White, "NAACP Asks the President to Speak Out," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"Town Flooded with Curiosity Seekers," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"Moors Demand Removal of Lynch Judge," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

Clarence Mitchell, "Observations and Reflections," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

Levi Jolley, "Mother's Heat is Broken from Lynch Tragedy," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"Morgan Studes at White House," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

Harold Lockley, "Thru Gotham Round Brooklyn," Afro-American, October 28, 1933.

"And They Didn't Fire a Shot! - Maryland Again Disgraces American Civilization," Pittsburgh Courier, October 28, 1933.

"And This Is Your American Legion Down in Maryland," Pittsburgh Courier, October 28, 1933.

" 'Cracker' Jury and Scene of Burning of George Armwood," Pittsburgh Courier, October 28, 1933.

" 'A Throw Back to Barbarity,' Dixie Daily Brands Maryland's Red Wednesday," Pittsburgh Courier, October 28, 1933.

"Judge Listening to Grid Game Broadcast, Shuns Lynch Queries," Pittsburgh Courier, October 28, 1933.

"Conspiracy of Silence in Md. Lynching Orgy," Pittsburgh Courier, October 28, 1933.

"People of Town Laugh As They Discuss Horror," Pittsburgh Courier, October 28, 1933.

"Renews Lynch Probe," Salisbury Times, October 30, 1933.

"The Press Views Shore Lynching, Seeking Causes and Remedies," Salisbury Times, October 30, 1933.

"Races - At Princess Anne," Time Magazine, October 30, 1933.

"Find Other Witnesses To Lynching," Salisbury Times, October 31, 1933.

Newspaper Clippings November 1933

"Lane is Prepared to Reopen Inquest," Baltimore Sun, November 1, 1933.

"Lane Keeps Evidence on Mob Secret," Salisbury Times, November 3, 1933.

"NAACP Drafts Anti-Lynch Legislation," Afro-American, November 4, 1933.

"$1,000 Reward for Arrest of Lynch Leaders," Afro-American, November 4, 1933.

George Frazier Miller, "Action, Not Words Will Stop Lynching," Afro-American, November 4, 1933.

"Scalp of Lynch Cop is Sought in Ardmore, Pa." Afro-American, November 4, 1933.

"George Cuttle, "Scores Ades and Communists, as Well as Ritchie Democrats," Afro-American, November 4, 1933.

"The Press Looks at Maryland," Afro-American, November 4, 1933.

C. Elliott Freeman, "Boston Against Roman Holiday in Maryland," Afro-American, November 4, 1933.

"Education is Cure for Lynching," Afro-American, November 4, 1933.

"Enjoyed Md. Lynching," Afro-American, November 4, 1933.

"President Gets Lynch Affidavit," Afro-American, November 4, 1933.

"Wants America to Pray for Lynch Sins," Afro-America, November 4, 1933.

"Afro Readers Say," Afro-American, November 4, 1933.

"Lynching, National Menace," Afro-American, November 4, 1933.

William Conklin Brown, "All Atlanta Buzzes as Lynching Hits Maryland," Afro-American, November 4, 1933.

"Condemn Shore Legion Post," Afro-American, November 4, 1933.

"Baptists Pray. Armed Resistance Needed," Afro-American, November 4, 1933.

"Depart to Probe Ala. Lynchings," Afro-American, November 4, 1933.

"Houston Talks Before Penn State Council," Afro-American, November 4, 1933.

"Ritchie Sends Letter to NY-NJ Baptists," Afro-American, November 4, 1933.

"Baptists Pray for Punishment of Lynchers," Afro-American, November 4, 1933.

"DC Reds Refused Parade Permit," Afro-American, November 4, 1933.

"Shore Folk Protect Women? Rate of Illegitimacy Ungodly High!" Afro-American, November 4, 1933.

Eugene Rhodes, "Was Rape Back of the George Armwood Lynching?" Afro-American, November 4, 1933.


Clarence Mitchell, "Crowd Outside Makes Merry as Lee Dies," Afro-American, November 4, 1933.

"Lynch Quiz Data Detailed by Lane," Baltimore Sun, November 4, 1933.

"Procedure Studied by Lynch Probers," Baltimore Sun, November 5, 1933.

"Lane Plans Conference With Robins on Lynching," Baltimore Sun, November 9, 1933.

"Afro Posts Sum for Conviction of Mob Leaders," Afro-American, November 11, 1933.

"Liberties Group Raps Md. Officials," Afro-American, November 11, 1933.

Ivan Sharp, "Sharp's Eyes," Afro-American, November 11, 1933.

"The Lynch Affidavit," Afro-American, November 11, 1933.

"Afro Readers Say:," Afro-American, November 11, 1933.

"Some Day Your Map of the US May Show: The State of Delmarva!," Salisbury Times, November 11, 1933.

"Visit of Robins to Kin Delays Investigation Into Shore Lynching," Baltimore Sun, November 11, 1933.

"$1,000 Reward Offered in Shore Lynching Case," Baltimore Sun, November 13, 1933.

"A Bridge and a Law to End Lynching," Afro-American, November 18, 1933.

"Lynch Investigators Get Scant Courtesy from Alabama Officials," Afro-American, November 18, 1933.

"Prisoners Free After Lynching," Afro-American, November 18, 1933.

"Lane Asks for Arrest of Nine Alleged Participants in Princess Anne Lynching," Baltimore Sun, November 17, 1933.


"Seeks to Bar Certain Types of Attorneys," Baltimore Sun, November 19, 1933.

"Judges Fail to Act Upon Mob Arrests," Baltimore Sun, November 21, 1933.

Stanley G. Robins, "Letters to the Editor - But Wouldn't Anybody Who Wanted to Get to New York Go To Pittsburgh if That Were the Only Way to Get There?," Baltimore Sun, November 21, 1933.

"Lynching Investigation Awaits Coroner Inquest; Lane Will Help in Probe," Baltimore Sun, November 22, 1933.

"Lane Sends Robins' Letter to Judges," Baltimore Sun, November 22, 1933.

"3 Judges May Act Today in Lynching," Baltimore Sun, November 23, 1933.

"Metzerott Introduces Anti-Lynching Measure," Baltimore Sun, November 24, 1933.

"Move is Made to Free Man in Lynching Case," Baltimore Sun, November 24, 1933.

"Ritchie's Rum Bill Offered to Legislature," Baltimore Sun, November 24, 1933.

"No Move Yet in Armwood Lynch Inquiry," Afro-American, November 25, 1933.

Thomas Glenn, "A Georgia Boy," Afro-American, November 25, 1933.

"Anti-Lynching Body Hears a Special Report," Afro-American, November 25, 1933.

"Commissioners Hear Plea That Lynch Cop Be Fired," Afro-American, November 25, 1933.

"Shore Lynching Put Up to Judges," Baltimore Sun, November 25, 1933.

"Richardson Set Free; Scorns Mob," Baltimore Sun, November 26, 1933.

"Decision is Due Soon in Probe of Lynching," Baltimore Sun, November 27, 1933.

"Fifth Regiment Squads Arrest Men in Their Princess Anne Homes," Baltimore Sun, November 28, 1933.


"Shore-Bound Troops Start From Baltimore at Midnight," Baltimore Sun, November 28, 1933.


J.F. Essary, "4 Lynch Suspects in City Jail; Two to Shore Today on Writ," Baltimore Sun, November 29, 1933.

"Shore Mob Attacks Lane After Battle With Troops," Baltimore Sun, November 29, 1933.

"Statement from Gov. Ritchie," Baltimore Sun, November 29, 1933.

"Suspects Keep Silent After Arrival Here," Baltimore Sun, November 29, 1933.

"Duty to Hold Law Supreme, Ritchie Says," Baltimore Sun, November 29, 1933.

"Warlike Scenes on Eastern Shore as Guardsmen Bring Lynching Suspects to City," Baltimore Sun, November 29, 1933.


"Eastern Shore Senators Plan Action Today," Baltimore Sun, November 29, 1933.

"Pictures of Combat Smuggled Through Mob by Photographer," Baltimore Sun, November 29, 1933.

"Lane Awaiting Habeas Corpus in Lynch Case," Baltimore Sun, November 29, 1933.

"Rolph Deluged by Words of Praise, Blame," Baltimore Sun, November 29, 1933.

"Salisbury Mob Vents Anger on Writers and Camera Men," Baltimore Sun, November 29, 1933.

A.D. Emmart, "Maryland Finds Way Back to London Press -- First Page," Baltimore Sun, November 29, 1933.


"Editorial Comment on Ritchie's and Rolph's Actions in Lynching Case," Baltimore Sun, November 29, 1933.

""A Gain is Registered," Baltimore Sun, November 29, 1933.

James MacDonald, "Beset at Salisbury MD," New York Times, November 29, 1933.

"Negro's Grave Disturbed," New York Times, November 29, 1933.

"Judge Pattison Releases Four Lynch Suspects As Thousands Cheer Wildly," Baltimore Sun, November 30, 1933.

"Governor Ritchie's Statement on Freeing of Four Prisoners," Baltimore Sun, November 30, 1933.

Louis O'Donnell, "Governor and Lane Deny Receiving Any Notice of Hearing," Baltimore Sun, November 30, 1933.

"Duer Refuses to Comment of Ritchie Statements," Baltimore Sun, November 30, 1933.

"Quenstedt Criticizes Ritchie for Lynch Step," Baltimore Sun, November 30, 1933.

"Clergymen Call Rolph Faithless to His Oath," Baltimore Sun, November 30, 1933.

"Text of Official Order Freeing Prisoners," Baltimore Sun, November 30, 1933.

Newspaper Clippings December 1933

"Demands Recall Grand Jury," Marylander and Herald, December 1, 1933.


"Judge Will Demand Lane's Presence Before Somerset Grand Jury," Marylander and Herald, December 1, 1933.

"Judges to Set Date for Lynch Probe Today," Baltimore Sun, December 1, 1933.

"Afro at 'Shore Lynching Trial," Afro-American, December 2, 1933.

Paul Henderson, "Afro Car Hid from the Mob," Afro-American, December 2, 1933.

"Pa. Alumni Group Hits Lynch State," Afro-American, December 2, 1933.

"Epithets Fly at the Trial of Armwood Boss," Afro-American, December 2, 1933.

Simon Yancey, "He Who Would Be Free Must Himself Strike the First Blow," Afro-American, December 2, 1933.

"N.J. Legionaires Won't Denounce Lynch Town," Afro-American, December 2, 1933.

"Bayonets Rout Shore Mob in Pitched Battle," Afro-American, December 2, 1933.

"Baptists Aver Father Divine Needs Jailing," Afro-American, December 2, 1933.

"Witness Stand Proves Hot Seat for Shore Sheriff," Afro-American, December 2, 1933.

"Asserts Lynching Increases Crimes," Baltimore Sun, December 2, 1933.

"No Definite Date Set for Shore Lynch Hearing," Baltimore Sun, December 2, 1933.

"Police Guard Bernard Ades From Shore Legislators," Baltimore Sun, December 5, 1933.

"Colored People of Salisbury Protest Interference of Ades," Salisbury Times, December 6, 1933.

"Troop Invasion of Shore 'Unfortunate' and 'Inexcusable' Says Church Publication," Salisbury Times, December 7, 1933.

Joseph O'Connor, "But What About the 'Tragic Murder'?" Baltimore Sun, December 7, 1933.

"Negroes Hold Ades Cause of Woes on Shore," Baltimore Sun, December 7, 1933.

"Rev. White Raps Ritchie Before Church Council," Salisbury Times, December 8, 1933.

"Shore Cleric Puts Lynching Onus on Ritchie," Baltimore Sun, December 8, 1933.

 Bert Constance, "We Have Always Denounced Mobs," John Randolph Love, "Just a Little Impatience With The Law," Baltimore Sun, December 8, 1933.

"The Higher Law," Afro-American, December 9, 1933.

"Movie of Eastern Shore Mob," Afro-American, December 9, 1933.

"The Shore Rebels," Afro-American, December 9, 1933.

M. St. M. Ashley, "Something for Nothing, Says You! An Untenable Theory," Afro-American, December 9, 1933.

"Ritchie, Like Pilate, Washes His Hands," Afro-American, December 9, 1933.

"Says Officers Treated Men Brutally," Marylander and Herald, December 15, 1933.

"Colored People Blame Communists and Ades," Marylander and Herald, December 15, 1933.

"Thompson Tells Story of Arrest," Marylander and Herald, December 15, 1933.


"The New City Hotel," Afro-American, December 16, 1933.

"Obey Your Law, Bishop Jones Tells Eastern Shore Pastor," Afro-American, December 16, 1933.

"Afro Readers Say," Afro-American, December 16, 1933.

Daniel Lyman Ridout, "Rev. Ridout Says 3 Jameses Do Not Speak For Him," Afro-American, December 16, 1933.

"United States in Hell of a Mess, Says Rev. A. Clayton Powell," Afro-American, December 16, 1933.

"Jail Warden Hurt By Tear Gas Tube," Baltimore Sun, December 16, 1933.

George W. Westernmann, "N.R.A. = Negro Roasted Alive," Afro-American, December 23, 1933.

"Denson, Armwood Case 'Hero', 'Takes Low'; Denies Boasting To Save His Police Job," Afro-American, December 30, 1933.

Douglass Gordon, "Turning the Clock Back," Afro-American, December 30, 1933.

Newspaper Clippings 1934 - 1940

"Shore Murder Probe Delayed by Fear of Mob," Baltimore Sun, January 5, 1934.

"Armwood Lynch Probe Unfinished Business for 1933," Afro-American, January 6, 1934.

"Cop Denies Lynch Participation ; Keeps Job," Afro-American, January 6, 1934.

"Denston Takes Low," Afro-American, January 6, 1934.

"Lynch Suspect Fired from Job," Afro-American, January 6, 1934.

"Lane Ready to Aid in Lynching Probe," Baltimore Sun, January 17, 1934.

"Lane's Office Awaiting List of Persons Called in Probe of Lynching," Baltimore Sun, January 18, 1934.

"Grand Jury Ends Probe of Armwood Lynching Here on Tuesday, Jan. 23," Marylander and Herald, January 19, 1934.


"Shore Jury to Get Lynch Case Today," Baltimore Sun, January 23, 1934.

"Shore Jury Ends Probe on Lynching," Baltimore Sun, January 24, 1934.

"The Sound Sermon," Baltimore Sun, January 25, 1934.

"Grand Jury Convened in Princess Anne on Tuesday of this Week," Crisfield Times, January 26, 1934.

"Lynching Case is Closed by Somerset Jury," Baltimore Sun, January 26, 1934.

"Indicates $100,000 Suit in Shore Lynching Case," Baltimore Sun, January 27, 1934.

"And So...," Baltimore Sun, January 27, 1934.

"Hatred Where You Wouldn't Expect It," Afro-American, February 3, 1934.

"Shore Grand Jury Closes Lynch Case," Afro-American, February 3, 1934.

"Tydings Scores Hitlerism, Mum About Lynching," Afro-American, February 3, 1933.

"Asserts Negro Will Be Tried in Somerset County," Baltimore Sun, February 4, 1934.

"Senate to Take Up Anti-Lynch Bill," Baltimore Sun, February 6, 1934.

"Afro Reporter May Tell His Lynch Story," Afro-American, February 10, 1934.

"Senate Committee Subpoenas Lane," Baltimore Sun, February 16, 1934.

"City to Send Ten to Lynch Hearing," Baltimore Sun, February 20, 1934.

Dewey Fleming, "US to Get Lane Data on Shore Lynching Today," Baltimore Sun, February 21, 1934.

"The Lynching Probe," Baltimore Sun, February 21, 1934.

"At Opening of Senate Anti-Lynching Bill Hearings," Baltimore Sun, February 21, 1934.

Dewey Fleming, "Lane Wins Applause for Lynching Data Given Senate Group," Baltimore Sun, February 22, 1934.

"It May Be a Big Day," Baltimore Sun, February 22, 1934.

"Pay Refused for Lynching Suspects' Care," Baltimore Sun, February 24, 1934.

"Lane Names 9 Marylanders Lynch Suspects," Afro-American, March 3, 1934.

"Congratulations All Around, " Afro-American, March 3, 1934.

"Thompson to Get Chance for Denial," Baltimore Sun, March 5, 1934.

"Druggist Will be Given Chance Friday to Deny Part in Shore Lynching," Baltimore Sun, March 12, 1934.

"Recalls Military Move In Lynching," Baltimore Sun, March 13, 1934.

"Bailey Call Probe of Riot Against Guard," Baltimore Sun, March 14, 1934.

"Shoremen Get Bid to Lynch Hearing," Baltimore Sun, March 16, 1934.

Dewey Fleming, "Lynch Hearing Bid Declined by Duer," Baltimore Sun, March 17, 1934.

"Senate Group Hears Alibi of Lynch Support," Afro-American, March 24, 1934.

"Afro Visitor," Afro-American, May 12, 1934.

Gustavus Adolphus Steward, "Sex Sore Spot in Relations Between Black and White," Afro-American, July 14, 1934.

"Red Blood - Or White?" Crisfield Times, September 7, 1934.

Clarence Mitchell, "Princess Anne Gang Attacks Townspeople," Afro-American, September 15, 1934.

"Princess Anne Mob Attack Thought to Be Political Move," Afro-American, September 15, 1934.

Clarence Mitchell, "Observations and Reflections," Afro-American, September 22, 1934.

Mason P. White, "There is No Question that Princess Anne Needs a House Cleaning," Afro-American, September 29, 1934.

"Pa. Woman Sues Greyhound Bus for Jim Crow," Afro-American, October 6, 1934.

"Princess Anne Greets 'Hitler' with Silence," Afro-American, October 13, 1934.

"Figure in Lynching Controversy Dies," Baltimore Sun, January 8, 1940.

"Ex-Judge Pattison Dies in Cambridge," Baltimore Sun, February 13, 1940.