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Data Science

Citing Sources

Be sure to check with your professor when unsure of which citation style to use. 

If you need help structuring your citations, check out the style manual or consider using citation managers, which are linked below.

Remember: you always have the most control over the accuracy of your citations when you do it by hand using the selected style manual. Check any automatically generated citations for correctness. 

APA Citation Basics

The current American Psychological Association (APA) style manual is the 7th edition (2020).

APA style is most commonly used in Psychology, Education & the Social Sciences.

A copy of the APA style manual is available in the Ready Reference area at the Research Help Desk on the first floor of the Guerrieri Academic Commons.

Book by a single author

Format: Author's last name, first initial. (Year). Title of the book. Publisher name. DOI.


Tomlinson, B. (2010). Greening through IT: information technology for environmental sustainability. MIT Press.

Note: DOI may not always be applicable. 

Article from a journal

With a DOI

Format: Author's last name, first initial. (Year). Title of the article. Journal title, volume number (issue number), pages. DOI or URL


Mehl, S. (2021). Why Linguists Should Care about Digital Humanities (and Epidemiology). Journal of English Linguistics, 49(3), 331–337.

Article from a magazine

Format: Author's last name, first initial. (Date of publication). Title of the article. Magazine Title, volume number(issue), page numbers. DOI or URL if applicable


Groff, L. (2022, July/August). Beach Bummer. Atlantic, 330(1), 79-81.

Article from a newspaper

Format: Author's last name, first initial. (Date of publication). Title of the article. Newspaper Title, volume, page numbers. Discontinuous pages are separated by commas


Jewett, C. (2022, Aug 17). Over-the-counter sales of hearing aids to start soon FDA ruling lifts requirement for patients to get medical exam, prescription. The Baltimore Sun, pp. A.14.


Format: Author's last name, first initial. (Date of document or date of last revision, if known). Title of page. URL

Note: If there is no author listed, you can use the organization, as seen below.

Note: Add in "retrieved [date]" if you think the information is likely to change over time. 


Salisbury University. (2022). SU's Mission and Values. Retrieved August 17, 2022 from

DOI: Digital Object Identifier

The DOI is a set of numbers and/or letters given to individual journal articles.

  • You should include the DOI for articles retrieved online or from hardcopy

  • The database might give the DOI in the citation section. If not, then you may find it at the top or bottom of the first page

  • When you have a DOI, you do not need to include the web address

  • When you do not have a DOI, you must include the URL of the journal's homepage from the publisher's website. If this URL is too long, you may use the publisher's
    homepage. You may have to search for this website online.

    Do not use the direct URL of the article and do not use the database name or URL
    (exceptions; a dissertation, an ERIC document or older JSTOR article)

  • Older hardcopy journals will not have a DOI, so you will cite it without one