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GEOG / BIOL 150: APA Citations

Primarily for students in Professor Silaphone's Environmental Science: Concepts and Methods class, but other GEOG 150 courses may find this Guide useful.

About APA

APA Citation is most commonly used in Psychology, Education & Social Sciences.

A print copy of the APA manual is available at the Research Help Desk in the Academic Commons:

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 
 Call Numbers:
(GAC) Ready Ref. BF76.7 .P83 2020
(CRC) Ref. 808 PUB

APA Citation Worksheet

APA Citation Examples

NOTE: All citations shall be double-spaced with the second line indented.


Format: Author's last name, Initial(s). (Year of publication). Title of the article. Journal Title, volume number (issue number), pages. DOI number.

Example: Ke, F., & Hoadley, C. (2009). Evaluating online learning communities. Educational Technology Research & Development, 57(4), 487-510. doi:10.1007/s11423-009-9120-2

Without a DOI (Hardcopy)

Format: Author's last name, Initial(s). (Year of publication). Title of the article. Journal Title, volume number (issue number), pages.

Example: Carter, K. (1995). Teaching stories and local understandings. Journal of Educational Research, 88(6), 326-330.

Without a DOI (Database or Website)

Format: Author's last name, Initial(s). (Year of publication). Title of the article. Journal Title, volume number (issue number), pages. Retrieved from website

Example: Goral, T. (2009). The sustainable learning community. University Business, 12(7), 18. Retrieved from

NOTE: Capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title and any subtitles, as well as the first letter of any proper nouns. The full title of the book, including any subtitles, should be stated and italicized.
NOTE: When a reference has up to seven authors, spell out all authors names in the reference list.
NOTE: Use the following in-text citation example: (Ke et al., 2009).


Format: Author's last name, Initial(s). (Year, Month of publication). Title of the article. Magazine Title, volume number(issue), pages.

Example: Zimmer, C. (2009, July/August). The brain. Discover, 30(7), 24-25.


Format: Author's last name, Initial(s). (Year, Month Day of publication). Title of the article. Newspaper Title, pages. Discontinuous pages are separated by commas

Example: Poirot, C. (2004, March 17). HIV prevention pill goes beyond 'morning after'. The Hartford Courant, pp. F1, F6.


Format: Author's last name, Initial(s). (Year of publication). Title of the book. Place of Publication: Publisher name.

Example: Staff, F.E. (1969). The valentine & its origins. New York: Frederick A. Praeger.


Format: Author's last name, Initial(s). (Year, Month Day of publication or date of last revision, if known). Title of the website/article. Retrieved from URL.

Example: Burka, L. P. (1993). A hypertext history of multi-user dimensions. Retrieved from


Format: Author's last name, Initial(s). [Screen name]. (Year, Month Day of publication).Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL

Example: BBC News. (2015, February 23). Astronomers discover 7 Earth-sized planets [Video file]. Retrieved from

In-Text (Paraphrase or Quote): (Author Surname OR Screen name, Year)


Format: Creator's last name, Initials. (Year). Image title [Format]. Site Name. or Museum, Location. URL

Example: van Gogh, V. (1889). The starry night [Painting]. Museum of Modern Art, New York City, NY, United States.

DOI: Digital Object Identifier

The DOI is a set of numbers and/or letters given to individual journal articles.

  • You should include the DOI for articles retrieved online or from hardcopy

  • The database might give the DOI in the citation section. If not, then you may find it at the top or bottom of the first page

  • When you have a DOI, you do not need to include the web address

  • When you do not have a DOI, you must include the URL of the journal's homepage from the publisher's website. If this URL is too long, you may use the publisher's
    homepage. You may have to search for this website online.

    Do not use the direct URL of the article and do not use the database name or URL
    (exceptions; a dissertation, an ERIC document or older JSTOR article)

  • Older hardcopy journals will not have a DOI, so you will cite it without one

Online APA Resources

Some useful online resources include:

APA Style Website:
The Basics of APA Style - APA Video (ONLY Internet Explorer)
What's New in the Sixth Edition - APA Video (ONLY Internet Explorer)

UMUC Library:
APA Citation Examples

Ezcelsior College OWL:
APA References - 7th Edition

Mendeley Ultimate Citation Cheat Sheet (APA & MLA)
- Download PDF

Purdue OWL:
APA - 6 YouTube Video Series

APA Style Annotated Bibliography

UMUC Library:
How to Write an Annotated Bibliography - APA Style

Recommended Guides

The following guides may prove useful as you begin your search for articles...