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HHPF 559: Applied Research Methods

Remember!

You always have the most control over your citations. Always be sure to double check the citations you create - either by hand or with a citation management system - with the citation manuals or other trusted resources.

APA Citation Basics

The current American Psychological Association (APA) style manual is the 7th edition (2020).

APA style is most commonly used in Psychology, Education & the Social Sciences.


A copy of the APA style manual is available in the Ready Reference area at the Research Help Desk on the first floor of the Guerrieri Academic Commons.

Book by a single author

Format: Author's last name, first initial. (Year). Title of the book. Publisher name. DOI.

Example:

Tomlinson, B. (2010). Greening through IT: information technology for environmental sustainability. MIT Press.

Note: DOI may not always be applicable. 

Article from a journal

With a DOI

Format: Author's last name, first initial. (Year). Title of the article. Journal title, volume number (issue number), pages. DOI or URL

Example:

Mehl, S. (2021). Why Linguists Should Care about Digital Humanities (and Epidemiology). Journal of English Linguistics, 49(3), 331–337. https://doi.org/10.1177/00754242211019072

Article from a magazine

Format: Author's last name, first initial. (Date of publication). Title of the article. Magazine Title, volume number(issue), page numbers. DOI or URL if applicable

Example:

Groff, L. (2022, July/August). Beach Bummer. Atlantic, 330(1), 79-81.

Article from a newspaper

Format: Author's last name, first initial. (Date of publication). Title of the article. Newspaper Title, volume, page numbers. Discontinuous pages are separated by commas

Example:

Jewett, C. (2022, Aug 17). Over-the-counter sales of hearing aids to start soon FDA ruling lifts requirement for patients to get medical exam, prescription. The Baltimore Sun, pp. A.14.

Website

Format: Author's last name, first initial. (Date of document or date of last revision, if known). Title of page. URL

Note: If there is no author listed, you can use the organization, as seen below.

Note: Add in "retrieved [date]" if you think the information is likely to change over time. 

Example:

Salisbury University. (2022). SU's Mission and Values. Retrieved August 17, 2022 from https://www.salisbury.edu/discover-su/mission-values.aspx.


DOI: Digital Object Identifier

The DOI is a set of numbers and/or letters given to individual journal articles.

  • You should include the DOI for articles retrieved online or from hardcopy

  • The database might give the DOI in the citation section. If not, then you may find it at the top or bottom of the first page

  • When you have a DOI, you do not need to include the web address

  • When you do not have a DOI, you must include the URL of the journal's homepage from the publisher's website. If this URL is too long, you may use the publisher's
    homepage. You may have to search for this website online.

    Do not use the direct URL of the article and do not use the database name or URL
    (exceptions; a dissertation, an ERIC document or older JSTOR article)

  • Older hardcopy journals will not have a DOI, so you will cite it without one

AMA Manual of Style

AMA Citation Examples

  Format Example
Print Author(s). Article title. Journal Title. Year;volume(issue #): pages. Wormser GP, Ramanathan R, Nowakowski J, et al. Duration of antibiotic therapy for early Lyme disease. Ann Intern Med. 2003;138:697-705.
Online Author(s). Article title. Journal Title. Year;volume(issue #): pages. DOI or URL. Accessed date (if using URL). Florez HR, Martinez RL. Outdoor exercise reduces the risk of hypovitaminosis D in the obese. J Steroid Biochem Mol Bio. 2007;103(3-5):679-681. doi:10.1016 /j.jsbmb.2006.12.032.

 

 

  Format Example
Book Author. Book Title. Edition # (unless it's the first or only edition). City, State or Country of Publisher: Publisher's Name; publication year. Goldberg L, Elliot DL. Exercise for Prevention and Treatment of Illness. Philadelphia, PA: FA Davis Co; 1994.
Chapter of an edited volume Author. Book Chapter. In: Editor, ed. Book Title. Edition # (unless it's the first or only edition). City, State or Country of Publisher: Publisher's Name; publication year: page range. Gamble VN. On becoming a physician: a dream not deferred. In: White EC, ed. The Black Women's Health Book: Speaking for Ourselves. Seattle, Wash: Seal Press; 1990:52-64.

 

  Format Example
Website Author. Title. Name of Website. URL. Accessed date.  Carlson SJ. Step up your activity to help lower risk of diabetes. Mayo Clinic website. http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/diabetes/expert-blog/lower-diabetes-risk-withactivity/bgp-20142203. Published June 4, 2015. Accessed August 20, 2017.

Note: The name of the organization who made the website can be used in place of an author name or website name when they are not available.