Format: Author's last name, first initial. (Year). Title of the book. Publisher name. DOI.
Example: Tomlinson, B. (2010). Greening through IT: information technology for environmental sustainability. MIT Press.
Note: DOI may not always be applicable.
With a DOI
Format: Author's last name, first initial. (Year). Title of the article. Journal title, volume number (issue number), pages. DOI or URL
Example: Mehl, S. (2021). Why Linguists Should Care about Digital Humanities (and Epidemiology). Journal of English Linguistics, 49(3), 331–337. https://doi.org/10.1177/00754242211019072
Format: Author's last name, first initial. (Date of publication). Title of the article. Magazine Title, volume number(issue), page numbers. DOI or URL if applicable
Example: Groff, L. (2022, July/August). Beach Bummer. Atlantic, 330(1), 79-81.
Format: Author's last name, first initial. (Date of publication). Title of the article. Newspaper Title, volume, page numbers. Discontinuous pages are separated by commas
Example: Jewett, C. (2022, Aug 17). Over-the-counter sales of hearing aids to start soon FDA ruling lifts requirement for patients to get medical exam, prescription. The Baltimore Sun, pp. A.14.
Format: Author's last name, first initial. (Date of document or date of last revision, if known). Title of page. URL
Note: If there is no author listed, you can use the organization, as seen below.
Note: Add in "retrieved [date]" if you think the information is likely to change over time.
Example: Salisbury University. (2022). SU's Mission and Values. Retrieved August 17, 2022 from https://www.salisbury.edu/discover-su/mission-values.aspx.
The DOI is a set of numbers and/or letters given to individual journal articles.
You should include the DOI for articles retrieved online or from hardcopy
The database might give the DOI in the citation section. If not, then you may find it at the top or bottom of the first page
When you have a DOI, you do not need to include the web address
When you do not have a DOI, you must include the URL of the journal's homepage from the publisher's website.
Do not use the direct URL of the article and do not use the database name or URL
(exceptions; a dissertation, an ERIC document or older JSTOR article)
Older hardcopy journals will not have a DOI, so you will cite it without one