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CHEM 221: Acids & Bases

Acid/Base Practice Problems

image by Jack-Benny Persson


LibreTexts Practice Problems
Numerous practice problems on acids and bases via an open-source Organic Chemistry textbook through support from UC Davis and a grant from the National Science Foundation.  



McMurray's Acids/Bases Practice Exercises

image by Jack-Benny Persson

McMurray's Practice Exercises
Practice problems from John McMurray's texbook 'Organic Chemistry' on the subject of acids and bases.  Also quizzes users on polar covalent bonds.  

Volhard and Schore's Acid/Bases Practice Problems

image by Jack-Benny Persson

 Volhard and Schore's Acid/Base Practice Problems
Chapter 2 of the Volhard and Schore Organic Chemistry textbook focuses on Acids and Bases, and practice problems from the text (along with solutions) can be found here for additional practice opportunities.  

Acids & Bases

image by Province of British Columbia

Acids & Bases
Information on Acids & Bases in open-access textbook form, via the LibreText site.  Textbook made possible through work at UC Davis and supported by the National Science Foundation.  

Acid-Base Indicators

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Reference Table
A reference table of acid-base indicators, including pH change, color change, and preparation.  

Acid-base Reactions

image by Jack-Benny Persson

Acid-Base Reactions
The goal of this module is to build up your knowledge and skills of acid–base chemistry in a stepwise fashion. The learning outcomes build to the kind of knowledge and skills you need to analyze more advanced reactions, the majority of which require acid–base knowledge.

  • Assess your knowledge and make a study plan (metacognition)
  • View interactive instructional videos
  • Try the practice activities 
  • Complete the pre and post-tests to track your learning

Note:  use of this site requires the creation of a (free) username and password, and you must be logged in for the module to launch.  

AK Lectures

The AK Lectures are a series of lectures from a (external) educational platform designed to "promote collaboration between our users and help spread knowledge to every part of the world."

These lectures vary in length, and will open in a new window when you click on the provided link.

image by Sean MacEntee

Arrhenius,  Brönsted-Lowry, and Lewis Acids and Bases
There are three major ways in which we can categorize acids and bases. Arrhenius acids are defined as molecules that can readily dissociate in water and increase hydrogen ion concentration while Arrhenius bases are those molecules that dissociate in water and increase the hydroxide concentration. A Brönsted-Lowry acid is a compound that can donate a hydrogen ion while a Brönsted-Lowry base is a compound that can accept a hydrogen ion. A Lewis base is a compound that can donate a pair of electrons while a Lewis acid is a compound that can accept a pair of electrons.


Lewis Acids and Lewis Bases
Let us briefly extend the information we just learned in the following two chapters to Lewis Acid and Bases. The definition of the Lewis Acid-Base reaction is one of the most general definitions. It describes a reaction between a pair of electrons in a filled orbital and an empty orbital, as we will see in this lecture.