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ENVR 460 - Ewers: APA Citation Basics

Citing Sources: APA

RefWorks

RefWorks is a "next-generation" citation management tool that can help researchers cite sources in all of styles most commonly used at SU like APA, MLA, Chicago, Turabian, ACS, AMA, and thousands of others. With this tool, researchers can gather, organize, read, annotate, and cite their research sources. Plus, RefWorks creates an online collaboration space that enables groups of researchers to work together from any location.

Learn all about RefWorks: Video Tutorial Library      Guide to RefWorks

APA Citation Examples

Book by a single author

Format: Author's last name, Initial(s). (Date of publication). Title of the book. Place of Publication: Publisher name.

Example: Staff, F.E. (1969). The Valentine & Its Origins. New York: Frederick A. Praeger.

Article from a journal

With a DOI (Online or Hardcopy)
(See below for an explanation of DOI)

Format: Author's last name, Initial(s). (Date of publication). Title of the article. Journal title, volume number (issue number), pages. DOI number.

Example: Ke, F., & Hoadley, C. (2009). Evaluating online learning communities. Educational Technology Research & Development, 57(4), 487-510.
doi:10.1007/s11423-009-9120-2

Without a DOI (Hardcopy)

Format: Author's last name, Initial(s). (Date of publication). Title of the article. Journal title, volume number (issue number), pages.

Example: Carter, K. (1995). Teaching stories and local understandings. Journal of Educational Research, 88(6), 326-330.

Without a DOI (Database or Website)

Format: Author's last name, Initial(s). (Date of publication). Title of the article. Journal title, volume number (issue number), pages. Retrieved from website

Example: Goral, T. (2009). The Sustainable Learning Community. University Business, 12(7), 18. Retrieved from http://www.universitybusiness.com/

Article from a magazine

Format: Author's last name, Initial(s). (Date of publication). Title of the article. Journal Title, volume number(issue), pages.

Example: Zimmer, C. (2009, July/August). The Brain. Discover, 30(7), 24-25.

Article from a newspaper

Format: Author's last name, Initial(s). (Date of publication). Title of the article. Newspaper Title, pages. Discontinuous pages are separated by commas

Example: Poirot, C. (2004, March 17). HIV prevention pill goes beyond 'morning after'. The Hartford Courant, pp. F1, F6.

Website

Format: Author's last name, Initial(s). (Date of document or date of last revision, if known). Title of the website/article. Retrieved date of web retrieval, from URL.

Example: Burka, L. P. (1993). A hypertext history of multi-user dimensions. Retrieved August 2, 2007, from http://www.csun.edu/~hceng028/m-hist.txt.


DOI: Digital Object Identifier

The DOI is a set of numbers and/or letters given to individual journal articles.

  • You should include the DOI for articles retrieved online or from hardcopy

  • The database might give the DOI in the citation section. If not, then you may find it at the top or bottom of the first page

  • When you have a DOI, you do not need to include the web address

  • When you do not have a DOI, you must include the URL of the journal's homepage from the publisher's website. If this URL is too long, you may use the publisher's
    homepage. You may have to search for this website online.

    Do not use the direct URL of the article and do not use the database name or URL
    (exceptions; a dissertation, an ERIC document or older JSTOR article)

  • Older hardcopy journals will not have a DOI, so you will cite it without one

Additional Online Resources

Some useful online resources include:

APA Exposed (Harvard University Graduate School of Education)

American Psychological Association (APA) Format (Purdue OWL)

Research and Documenting Sources: APA Style: The Social Sciences The Diana Hacker site on the basics of APA style